Abstract：Research on pepper（Capsicum spp.）genetics and breeding were supported by the programs of national, ministries, and provincial governments during the‘Eleventh Five-year Plan’period. Great progress has been made on the identification and evaluation of germplasm resources, breeding technology, innovation of breeding material, and new variety selection, especially on applying molecular marker technology in germplasm diversity, genetic analysis, assistant selection, etc. areas. Male sterile peeper research has also made great progress. Processing breeding was paid much attention. A group of new varieties has been developed and performance the diversity of types. At present, the major existing problems are the relatively narrow genetic resources, insufficient creative strength, and repeated research activities. This paper prospects the research focus of pepper genetic breeding.