Abstract：Abstract：Cucumber（Cucumis sativus L.）scultivation counts for the largest share in protected cultivation of vegetable crops in China. It is also a significant industry for farmers making fortune. In this paper, the latest research advances achieved during‘The Eleventh Five-year Plan’in cucumber genetics and breeding were reviewed. Notable progress was made during the past five years in many aspects, such as innovation of breeding materials, appraisal and screen of germplasm, selective breeding of new varieties, studies on genetic law, molecular biology, tissue culture, establishment of transgenic system and transgenic research, etc. The existing problems were analyzed and the research work for next step was also prospected.