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2011 Vol.1 Issue.14,Published 2011-07-15

1 Overview of Studies on Celery Late Blight Disease
ZHU Xin,GAO Guo-xun,WANG Xuan
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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 1-8 [Abstract] ( 852 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 263KB] ( 744 )
9 Research Progress on Eggplant(Solanum melongena L.)Verticillium Wilt and Genetic Resistance Breeding
WANG Yi-kui1,2,LI Wen-jia1*,MO Jian-you3,LI Yan1,JIANG Ya-qin1
Eggplant(Solanum melongena L.)verticillium wilt is a typical soil-borne disease all over the world.It could reduce eggplant output high up to 40 %-50 %.This paper summarized the recent research progress made in eggplant verticillium wilt pathogen distribution and harmfulness,identification and differentiation of pathogen species,disease resistant materials,and resistance breeding.The paper also carried out discussions about existing problems and future research orientations on verticillium wilt.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 9-14 [Abstract] ( 1319 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 257KB] ( 546 )
15 Effect of Calcium Nitrate on Sugar Content and Sugar-metabolic Enzyme Activities in Grafted Muskmelon Fruit
LI Tian-lai1,LI Ji-yao1,LIU Yi-fei1,2
In order to solve the problem of sugar content decrease in grafted muskmelon(Cucumis melon L.)fruit,the self-rooted and grafted muskmelon were taken as test materials,the effects of different calcium nitrate concentrations on sugar-metabolic enzymes activities in grafted muskmelon fruit were studied.The result indicated that the effects of different nitrate calcium concentrations on sugar contents in the grafted muskmelon fruit were different.Compared with the control,the treatment of 0.5 % nitrate calcium concentration significantly increased the fructose,glucose,sucrose and galactose contents,while significantly decreased the raffinose and stachyose contents in the later part of fruit development(14-42 days after treatment).Although the treatment of 0.2 % and 0.8 % nitrate calcium concentrations affect the soluble sugar content to some extent,the affecting degree is lower than the 0.5 % treatment.Three levels of calcium nitrate treatments significantly increased the total fruit sugar content 21 days after treatment,and 0.5 % calcium nitrate treatment also significantly increased the starch content.However,compared with the self-root control,0.5 % calcium nitrate treatment did not increase the contents of fructose,glucose,sucrose,starch and total sugar to the level of self-rooted muskmelon fruit.In view of fruit sugar metabolism and galactose metabolism enzymes,compared with the grafted control,each level of calcium nitrate treatment has significantly enhanced the acid invertase,alkaline α-galactosidase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities in the mid stage(14-28 days after treatment)of fruit development,yet sucrose synthase and neutral invertase activities had no change.Compared with self-rooted control,0.5 % calcium nitrate treatment could not increase the acid invertase activities to the level of self-root,but the sucrose phosphate synthase activities were improved obviously.The results indicated that different levels of calcium nitrate treatments can enhance starch,total sugar,glucose,fructose and sucrose content in grafted muskmelon fruit,and enhance acid invertase,alkaline α-galactos- idase and sucrose phosphate synthase activities.Among them,the effect of 0.5 % concentration calcium nitrate treatment is the best.These results suggested that increasing sucrose content in the mid or later part of fruit development may improve the quality of grafted muskmelon fruit.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 15-22 [Abstract] ( 1504 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 545KB] ( 599 )
23 Combining Ability Analysis of Cold-resistance Characteristic and Elite Combination Breeding in Cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.)
ZHANG Yang-yong,JIN Zhe,FANG Zhi-yuan,LIU Yu-mei,YANG Li-mei,ZHUANG Mu,SUN Pei-tian
By segregated population selection and cold-resistance identification,over 30 elite inbred lines were developed in cabbage(Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.).Using Griffing Ⅳ method,cabbage combining ability and heritability of cold-resistance characteristic were analyzed,taking 6 inbred lines with different cold-resistance as testing materials.The results showed that the characteristic of cold-resistance was controlled by additive effect and non-additive effect,but mainly by additive effect.The percentage of additive effect increased with the decrease of low temperature.GCA(general combining ability)variance accounted for a large proportion in the total genetic variance,and the mean square ratio of GCA and SCA was greater than 7,which also had significant difference at 1 % level.For cold-resistant breeding,early generation selection should be emphasized.With the results of combining ability analysis and investigation of other economic characteristics,two elite cold-resistant combinations were confirmed.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 23-27 [Abstract] ( 1230 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 211KB] ( 470 )
28 Agrobacterium Tumefaciens Mediated Transformation of Cabbage Fusar- ium Wilt Pathogen
LI Er-feng,WANG Dian-dong,YANG Yu-hong,XIE Bing-yan*
Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation(ATMT)was applied in this research.Agrobacterium tumefaciens,which carried plasmid PCH-sGFP harboring the green fluorescent protein(gfp)gene and hygromycin phosphotransferase gene(hph),was used to transform Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. conglutinans race 1 and 2.The transformants were randomly selected to confirm.The results indicated that transformants were integrated with exogenous T-DNA in genomes successfully,and gfp gene was stable after 6 successive subcultures.The growth rates analysis and pathogenicity showed that there were no significant differences between wild isolates and transformants on growth rates and pathogenicity.So transformant can be used as a useful tool for further function research,such as histopathology and pathogenesis.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 28-34 [Abstract] ( 1274 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1807KB] ( 721 )
35 Cytology Observation on Process of Potato Leaves Infected by Alternaria solani
ZUO Yu-hu1,SHI Jie1,HAN Qing-mei2,KANG Zhen-sheng2,TAI Lian-mei1,LIU Tong1
The infection process and ultra-structure of Alternaria solani on potato(Solanum tuberosum L.)leaves were observed by microscope,scanning and transmission electron microscope.The results showed that conidia began to germinate,and germ tube start to form 2 h after inoculation.Appressorium formation in the hypha tip was exhibited 6 h after inoculation.The germ tubes directly penetrated the host epidermal cells junctions and formed infection hypha on leaf of susceptive variety‘Dongnong 303’8 h after inoculation.Hyphal invasion of host cells spread to the adjacent cell expansion,and cell inclusions and all organelles have been almost completely digested 24 h after inoculation in susceptible variety.The infectious process in susceptible variety was approximately the same as in resistant variety‘Kexin No.1’,but the time of occurrence in resistant variety was later than that of susceptible variety.There was more hypha in host cell in susceptive variety than that in resistant variety.The defense response of thicken cell wall was observed in resistant variety 24 h after inoculation,but no defense response was seen in susceptive variety.These results suggested that resistance was effective to invasion and spreading by A. solani in resistance variety.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 35-40 [Abstract] ( 1518 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 6123KB] ( 583 )
41 The Primary Studies on Pathogen Identification and Biological Characteristics of Physalis Alkekengi L. Root Rot in Yilan County of Heilongjiang Province
WANG Yong,ZHANG Jing-jing,YE Yang-yang,CHEN Dian*
The separate identification of pathogens from the disease tissue of Physalis alkekengi L. root rot in Yilan county of Heilongjiang province was carried out in this report.he morphology observation and the results of rDNA ITS sequence analysis revealed that Fusarium solani (Mart.)Sacc. and Fusarium oxysporum Schlecht. were the main pathogenic bacterias.The optimum field temperature was 25-30 ℃,and the most suitable pH value was 8.0 for the F. solani colonies growth. The F. oxysporum could grow with temperature between 10-30 ℃,while 25 ℃ and pH 7.0 is the optimum condition. Light had no significant effect on both main pathogenic bacteria.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 41-46 [Abstract] ( 1057 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 2247KB] ( 615 )
47 Changes of Pertinent Indices in Cucumber Root System under Low-nitrogen Stress
XU Jing-jing,QIN Zhi-wei*,YU Ming-lei,WU Tao
Two cucumber cultivars D0328 and Dongnong 806 with widely different low-nitrogen tolerance indices were chosen as test materials,in order to find the changing mechanism through studying the changes in several indices of both cucumber roots during the whole period of duration.The result showed that in the case of low-nitrogen stress,the root volume,root dry weight and root vigor of both cultivars all increased before the full bearing stage and then decreased.However,the bleeding flow rate of both roots incre...

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 47-51 [Abstract] ( 1079 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 256KB] ( 442 )
52 Effects of Soil Moisture Content on Soil Major Physical Traits and Pakchoi Growth in Solar Greenhouse
LI Yong,YU Xi-hong*,JIANG Xin-mei*,YAN Chong
In this paper,taking pakchoi(Brassica rapa L.chinensis Group.)variety‘Siyueman’as experiment material,we studied the effect of 3 different soil moisture contents(with W1,W2,W3 said)on major soil physical trait and pakchoi growth in greenhouse in winter.The results indicated that along with the increase of soil moisture the 3 phases of soil were significantly affected,the soil thermal capacity was also remarkably augmented.The soil thermal conductivity and the rate of soil thermal conductivity were firstly increased then significantly decreased.The result of daily soil temperature changes in 5 cm,10 cm and 15 cm soil depth showed that the soil temperature of soil moisture between 55 %-70 % treatment was higher than soil moisture between 70 %-85 % and 85 %-100 % treatments. In the 15 cm soil depth,the daily range of soil temperature with soil moisture contents between 70 %-85 % was the minimum.When the soil moisture was between 70 %-85 %,pakchoi single plant yield was greatly improved,and the contents of chlorophyll and VC were also increased.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 52-56 [Abstract] ( 1328 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 244KB] ( 622 )
57 Water-saving Effect of Furrow Irrigated Muskmelon with Widened Bed Distance
CHEN Nian-lai,SUN Xiao-mei,ZHANG Zheng,ZHAO Na
Muskmelon(Cucumis melo L.)‘Yinfeng’was employed in a field experiment to study the effect of widened bed distances on fruit quality and yield,irrigated water consumption and irrigation water production efficiency under furrow irrigation.The results showed that the total water consumption reduced as the bed distances increased.The 2.8 m bed distance plots consumed 24 % less water and the 2.5 m bed distance plots saved 17 % water.Irrigation water production efficiency in 2.8 m and 2.5 m bed distance plots were significantly higher than the traditional cultivation model(2.0 m bed distance plots).The yields,fruit number per plant,muskmelon weight,total soluble solids(TSS)content in the 2.8 m bed distance plots were not significantly different from those in the 2.5 m bed distance and the control plots.But the flesh thickness in 2.8 m bed distance plots was significantly higher than those in 2.5 m bed distance and the control plots.Obviously,under furrow irrigation model,water consumption can be saved due to the musk reduced furrow length,and the muskmelon yield and quality will not be influenced.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 57-60 [Abstract] ( 892 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 284KB] ( 489 )
61 Preliminary Observation of Tomato Sepal Shape
ZHENG Xu-xiang,LIANG Yan*,YAN Jian-min,LUO Lei
Sepal shape of 85 materials,including inbred lines of tomato(Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.)and cherry tomato,were observed.The results show that there is a gradual change of sepal shape from less than 90 degrees to over 180 degrees from flowering to fruit maturity.The sepal shape can be classified into spread,up-spread,upright and scroll 4 types at red ripe stage.The following is the angle between stretching direction of sepal and the fruit vertical axis.Spread is in the range of 90-100 degrees,up-spread is 101-170 degrees,upright is 171-180 degrees,scroll means the angle is more than 180 degrees,and it is entad curling.The ratios are 4.71 %,1.18 %,17.65 % and 76.47 %,respectively.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 61-63 [Abstract] ( 1475 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1201KB] ( 572 )
64 Studies on Fertility of Thermo-sensitive Genic Male-sterile Tomato,Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.—T4
WANG Xian-yu1,6,YU Fen-di1,LIANG Cong-yao1,LI Liang-shao2,HUANG Wei-na1,DU Yong-cheng3,LIU Zheng-guo1,ZENG Dong4,PAN Li-fan5
Taking thermo-sensitive genic male-sterile tomato Lycopersicum esculentum Mill.T4 and the control First as experimental materials,this paper investigated pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number,analyzed the protein changes in leaf and anther by Tricine-SDS-PAGE electrophoresis to comprehend fertile conversion of T4.The paper also analyzed the pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number,protein differences in leaf and anther under fertility and sterility conditions.The results showed that pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 were the highest with 28 ℃/18 ℃(day/night)treatment.There was no significant difference compared with the control First.It indicated that T4 had restored partial fertility.But,with 28 ℃/24 ℃ and 28 ℃/12 ℃ treatments the pollen germination rate,self-breeding rate and fruit seed number of T4 had significant differences with the control First,and T4 expressed as sterile line.There were significant differences in leaf protein and anther protein of T4 under different temperature treatments.Under 28 ℃/24 ℃ and 28 ℃/12 ℃ treatments,leaf protein of T4 was significantly different with the control First.But,there was no significant difference between T4 and the control under 28 ℃/18 ℃treatment.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 64-68 [Abstract] ( 1059 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 1240KB] ( 606 )
69 Evaluation on the Effect of Spirotetramat on Controlling Bemisia tabaci
XIE Wen,WU Qing-jun,XU Bao-yun,WANG Shao-li,ZHANG You-jun*
The bioassay research of spirotetramat in Bemisia tabaci egg,nymph and adult were investigated.96 % movento showed high toxicity to egg and nymph of B.tabaci,which had no significant difference compared with that of 95 % imidacloprid used as a controlling pesticide and LC50 were 18.91 mg?L-1 and 14.97 mg?L-1,respectively.However,96 % movento showed low toxicity to adult of B.tabaci and LC50 were up to 453.34 mg?L-1,which was significantly higher than that of 95 % imidacloprid.On the other hand,24 % movento SC has good control effect and persistence to B.tabaci through field experiment.The combinations effect of movento and biopower were obviously better than that of movento used alone.The results showed that control effects of 24 % movento SC biopower 0.2 %(3.6 g?hm-2)were 64.91 %-66.92 %,82.00 %-82.59 %,88.11 %-89.97 %,89.99 %-93.94 % and 91.10 %-93.56 % after spaying 1-28 days,respectively.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 69-73 [Abstract] ( 1545 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 229KB] ( 672 )
74 Toxicity Determination of Several Insecticides and Their Mixtures to Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)
LIU Kui,FU Bu-li,QIU Hai-yan,FU Yue-guan
Four insecticides toxicities to adult of Bactrocera(Zeugodacus)cucurbitae(Coquillett)and their co-efficient ratio were determined by micro drop method.The results showed that LD50 of 80 % dichlorvos EC was minimum for 1.683 9 μg?g-1 and alpha-cypermethrin EC was the largest for 8.877 0 μg?g-1.The toxicity order was 80 % dichlorvos EC>5 % emamectin-benzoate ME>480 g?L-1 chlorpyrifos EC>100 g?L-1 alpha-cypermethrin EC.The co-efficient ratio of the mixture of dichlorvos and emamectin-benzoate(1∶1)was 426.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 74-76 [Abstract] ( 1091 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 192KB] ( 500 )
77 Effect of Different Killing Methods on Nutrition of Hemerocallis citrina Baroni
LI Deng-xuan,LI Dong-bo,XU Guo-bin,CAO Liu-ying,LI Cai-xia,ZHOU Qiang
Four kinds of kill out methods,including solar power,vapour,micro-wave and medicinal treatment were used to treat the daylily(Hemerocallis citrina Baroni),and studied their effects on daylily nutrient.The results indicated that the total sugar and protein content of dried daylily via vapour method were 55.66 % and 11.54 % respectively,higher than the national standard.The protein content of dried daylily via solar power method was 11.35 %,higher than the national standard and its contents of VC and β-carotene were the highest,489.0 mg?kg-1 and 36.5 mg?kg-1,respectively.But its total acidity(2.90 %)was lower than the national standard.The dried daylily via kill out method of solar power had the best quality,least loss of nutrient,with easy and simple processing way.Besides,it was energy saving and friendly to environment.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 77-79 [Abstract] ( 1195 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 197KB] ( 472 )
80 A New Tomato Rootstock Variety Highly Resistant to Root-knot Nematodes —‘Kezhen No.1’
WANG Ming-yao,Zhang Gui-hai,WANG Xue-ying,WEN Su-ping,CUI Shao-yu,SHI Ying
‘Kezhen No.1’is a F1 hybrid tomato rootstock highly resistant to southern tomato root-knot nematode.It is developed by taking inbred line MK5965,which is highly resistant to tomato root-knot nematode as female parent,and B87123 inbred line,which has many pollen, more seeds,strong growth potential,and tolerant to low temperature as male parent.It can be grafted with general tomato varieties.The grafted seedlings have high survival rate with strong resistance and its yield can increase 25 % than own-rooted seedings.It is suitable to be cultivated in large quantity in protected fields in winter and from winter to spring.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 80-83 [Abstract] ( 1141 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 194KB] ( 542 )
84 A New Tomato F1 Hybrid —‘Ruifeng’
WANG Yong-zhen,ZHANG Jian-guo
‘Ruifeng’is a new tomato F1 hybrid developed by crossing inbred line J3-106 as female parent and Y145-105 as male parent.It is of mid maturity.Its plant is indeterminate with high resistance to ToMV.Its ripe fruit is of oblate shape and red in color.It is tolerant to storage and transportation.The single fruit weight is 200-300 g.It has less deformed fruit.Its fruit has good commercial quality.Its yield is about 75 t?hm-2.It is suitable to be cultivated in open fields all over Shanxi Province.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 84-86 [Abstract] ( 903 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 146KB] ( 560 )
87 A New CMS Sweet Pepper F1 Hybird —‘Longjiao No.11’
ZHANG Hui1,XU Jian1,LIU Lu-xiang2,LIN Bao-xiang1,CHEN Li-xin1,XIE Li-bo1,GUO Ya-hua1
Using pepper CMS generation of three-line hybrid breeding method and crossing sweet pepper,France progeny isolated from sterile parental source as a transfer,after 8 generations’selection a stable sterile line Z4-2A,maintainer line 02-5B,and restorer line 02-7C were crossed to breed a new variety‘Longjiao No.11’.It is of mid and early maturity and takes 110 days to grow.The plant has strong growth vigor.The plant is about 60 cm in height.The first flower node sets on 9-10 node.Its fruit is of oblong shape with smooth surface.Its vertical and horizontal diameter is 10-12 cm and 8-9 cm,respectively.Its flesh thickness is 0.55 cm.The single fruit weight is over 125 g.The unripe fruit is green in color.The VC content is 1 058 mg?kg-1.Its resistance to phytophthora capsici and CMV.It can yield about 49.5 t?hm-2.It is suitable for planting in protected and open fields all over China.
2011 Vol. 1 (14): 87-89 [Abstract] ( 1072 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 158KB] ( 518 )
90 A New Cucumber F1 Hybird —‘Longlv No.1’
ZHANG Zuo-biao,XU Chun-mei,LIU Jing-lan*
Longlv No.1’is a new cucumber F1 hybrid developed by crossing inbred line 96452 as female parent and inbred line 0104 as male parent.The plant has strong growth vigor.The fruits grow on  the main vine.The fruit is about 35 cm in length with early maturity.The fruit is straight,sweet and crispy,and has dark green skin with few white spines.It is highly resistant to downy mildew,resistant to fusarium wilt and powdery mildew.It is suitable for greenhouse cultivation in winter and spring and planting under big plastic shed in spring.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 90-92 [Abstract] ( 861 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 147KB] ( 405 )
93 A New Cucumber F1 Hybrid —‘Hayan No.3’
LIU Da-jun,YE Yong-liang,YANG Ren-jian,FENG Guo-jun*
‘Hayan No.3’is a new cucumber F1 hybrid bred by crossing inbred line M277-4 and M457.The plant has strong growth vigor.It has short inter-node.Its leaf is of middle size.The female ratio is over 60 %.Its fruit is rich in nutrition and around 32 cm in length.The fruit has deep green skin with white thorn.The fruit can be harvested about 55 days after sowing.Its yield is about 52.5 t?hm-2.It is resistant to fusarium wilt.It is suitable for protected field cultivation in spring at Northern China.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 93-95 [Abstract] ( 876 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 155KB] ( 521 )
96 A New Water Chestnut(Eleocharis tuberose)Variety —‘Guiti No.2’
CHEN Li-juan,CAI Bing-hua,JIANG Wen,GUI Jie,WEI Shao-long,YAN Hua-bing,SU Bin,SU Guo-xiu
Taking local cultivar of water chestnut from Panyu district of Guangzhou city as material, the elite cultivar of water chestnut‘Guiti No.2’was selected from the colonies of somaclonal variation produced by micropropagation technology,and propagated via tissue culture.The plantlets were used as seed in production,The propagation rate could reach up to 20 times, It took 25-30 days for seedling culture and about 140 days in field propagation.The seedling was 95-105 cm in plant height. Its corm was of flat round shape with slightly concave umbilicus.Its horizontal and vertical diameter was 3.5-5.5 cm and 2.5-3.0 cm, respectively.The average weight of single corm was 26 g.The corm yield was 37.5-52.5 t?hm-2.It is suitable for planting in Guangxi.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 96-98 [Abstract] ( 1450 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 182KB] ( 554 )
99 A New Watermelon F1 Hybrid —‘Xinggui No.5’
HE Yi,LI Wen-xin*,LI Tian-yan,HONG Ri-xin,QIN Si-hua,HUANG Jin-yan,FAN Xue-jun
‘Xinggui No.5’is a new watermelon F1 hybrid developed by crossing GY3-a as female parent and SF1-e as male parent.It is early maturity. The total growing period is 85-90 days in spring sowing and 60-70 days in autumn sowing.The fruit development period is 28-30 days.The plant has mid growth vigor with ramifying ability.It is easy to set fruit.The fruit is of round shape.The fruit shape index is 1.02.The peel is dark in color with dark green stripes.The peel thickness is 1.0-1.2 cm.It is tolerant to storage and transportation.Its pulp is red in color and the pulp is sweet.Its soluble solid matter content is 10.5 %-11.5 %.The single fruit weight is 3.5-4.5 kg.It normally can yield 33.75-37.50 t?hm-2.It is suitable for cultivation in China and also can be inter-planted with sugarcane,cassava,corn and young fruit trees.Double cropping melon fields need grafting cultivation.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 99-101 [Abstract] ( 938 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 154KB] ( 448 )
102 A New Muskmelon F1 Hybird —‘Yinguan’
ZHANG Qin1,JIANG Chun-ming2,LI Jin-long1*,LI Cheng-de3
‘Yinguan’is a new muskmelon F1 hybrid with superior quality and high yield.It is developed by crossing inbred line M5 as female parent and inbred line H3 as male parent.It is a variety with medium maturing.Its total growing period is about 95 days and the fruit development period is about 45 days.The plant is strong in growth vigor and easy to set fruit.The mature fruit is oval shaped and full netted with white skin.The flesh thickness is 5 cm,and soluble solids content is about 15 %.The flesh color is light green and it tastes sweet,crispy with fine texture.The average fruit weight is 3.5 kg.The yield is about 60 t?hm-2.It is suitable for protected and open fields cultivation in Gansu Province and other areas with similar conditions.

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2011 Vol. 1 (14): 102-105 [Abstract] ( 1049 ) [HTML 1KB] [ PDF 181KB] ( 626 )
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